Sunday, July 30, 2017

Distributed Misc


http://www.cnblogs.com/javanerd/p/6444536.html


第二章 系统模型
描述分布式系统的三种模型
  • Physical models : 用机器,网络,硬件等语言去描述整个系统。
  • Architectural models : 用计算、计算任务、计算单元等语言去描述整个系统。(比上一中抽象)
  • Fundametal models : 用抽象的方式去描述整个系统,主要包括三个方面:interaction models( 系统间的通信),failure models (描述故障),security models
Architectural models
在这个模型中,考察四个方面:
  • 在分布式系统中,通讯的实体(entity)是什么?
  • 实体间的通信方式。( interprocess communication - socket 调用,remote invocation - rpc ,indirect communication - 消息队列)
  • 各个实体的在分布式系统的中的角色。
  • 各个实体在物理层面,对应的是什么设施。
Fundamental models
用基本的模型主要为了解决两个问题
  • 对于分布式系统中的一切假设去建模
  • 对于一些假设去证明是否可能,或者不可能。
interaction models
主要影响系统间通信的两个方面:
  1. 通信性能受限
  2. 没有一个全局时间
failures models
主要关注系统是否故障,故障可以分类
  1. Omission failures(无响应,未履行的故障)
  2. 1.1 Process omission:进程挂了,在异步分布式系统中,这种故障检测只能靠timeout,但是timeout有可能只是因为系统响应慢了。
  3. 1.2 Communication omission failures
  4. Arbitrary failures(Byzantine failure):随机的failures
  5. Timing failures: 只在同步的分布式系统中有,指的是各种时间没有在bound中。例如消息延迟了。


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