Friday, July 7, 2017

Security Breach


http://coolshell.cn/articles/17607.html
安全问题从来都是需要多方面一起努力,但是安全问题最大的短板就是在用户这边。这次的这个事,说白了,就是用户没有给MongoDB设置上用户名和口令,然后还把服务公开到了公网上。
那么,怎么会有这么多的对外暴露的MongoDB?看了一下Shodan的报告,发现主要还是来自公有云平台,Amazon,Alibaba,Digital Ocean,OVH,Azure 的云平台上有很多这样的服务。不过,像AWS这样的云平台,有很完善的默认安全组设置和VPC是可以不把这样的后端服务暴露到公有云上的,为什么还会有那么多?

这么大量的暴露在公网上的服务是怎么回事?有人发现(参看这篇文章《It’s the Data, Stupid!》 ),MongoDB历史上一直都是把侦听端口绑在所有的IP上的,这个问题在5年前(2011年11月)就报给了MongoDB (SERVER-4216),结果2014年4月才解决掉。所以,他觉得可能似乎 MongoDB的 2.6之前的版本都会默认上侦听在0.0.0.0 。
1)一是技术人员下载了mongod的软包,一般来说,mongodb的压缩包只有binary文件 ,没有配置文件 ,所以直接解开后运行,结果就没有安全认证,也绑在了公网上。也许,MongoDB这么做的原因就是为了可以快速上手,不要在环境上花太多的时间,这个有助于软件方面的推广。但是,这样可能就坑了更多的人。
2)因为MongoDB是后端基础服务,所以,需要很多内部机器防问,按道理呢,应该绑定在内网IP上,但是呢,可能是技术人员不小心,绑在了0.0.0.0的IP上。
关于公网的IP。一般来说,公有云平台上的虚拟主机都会有一个公网的IP地址,老实说,这并不是一个好的方法,因为有很多主机是不需要暴露到公网上的,所以,也就不需要使用公网IP,于是,就会出现弹性IP或虚拟路由器以及VPC这样的虚拟网络服务,这样用户在公有云就可以很容易的组网,也就没有必要每台机器都需要一个公网IP,使用云平台,最好还是使用组网方案比较好的平台。
关于安全组。在AWS上,你开一台EC2,会有一个非常严格的安全组——只暴露22端口,其它的全部对外网关闭。这样做,其实是可以帮用户防止一下不小心把不必要的服务Open到公网上。按道理来说,AWS上应该是帮用户防了这些的。但是,AWS上的MongoDB祼奔的机器数量是最多的,估计和AWS的EC2的 基数有关系吧(据说AWS有千万台左右的EC2了)


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