Saturday, July 26, 2014

Operating Systems - Interview Questions and Answers



What is a binary semaphore? What is its use?

A binary semaphore is one, which takes only 0 and 1 as values. They are used to implement mutual exclusion and synchronize concurrent processes.


What is thrashing?

It is a phenomenon in virtual memory schemes when the processor spends most of its time swapping pages, rather than executing instructions. This is due to an inordinate number of page faults.

List the Coffman's conditions that lead to a deadlock.

Mutual Exclusion: Only one process may use a critical resource at a time.
Hold & Wait: A process may be allocated some resources while waiting for others.
No Pre-emption: No resource can be forcible removed from a process holding it.
Circular Wait: A closed chain of processes exist such that each process holds at least one resource needed by another process in the chain.


What is the resident set and working set of a process?
Resident set is that portion of the process image that is actually in real-memory at a particular instant. 
Working set is that subset of resident set that is actually needed for execution.
When is a system in safe state?
The set of dispatchable processes is in a safe state if there exists at least one temporal order in which all processes can be run to completion without resulting in a deadlock.
What is cycle stealing?
We encounter cycle stealing in the context of Direct Memory Access (DMA). Either the DMA controller can use the data bus when the CPU does not need it, or it may force the CPU to temporarily suspend operation. The latter technique is called cycle stealing. Note that cycle stealing can be done only at specific break points in an instruction cycle.
What is meant by arm-stickiness?
If one or a few processes have a high access rate to data on one track of a storage disk, then they may monopolize the device by repeated requests to that track. This generally happens with most common device scheduling algorithms (LIFO, SSTF, C-SCAN, etc). High-density multisurface disks are more likely to be affected by this than low density ones.
What is busy waiting?
The repeated execution of a loop of code while waiting for an event to occur is called busy-waiting. The CPU is not engaged in any real productive activity during this period, and the process does not progress toward completion.
When does the condition 'rendezvous' arise?
In message passing, it is the condition in which, both, the sender and receiver are blocked until the message is delivered.

What is a trap and trapdoor?

Trapdoor is a secret undocumented entry point into a program used to grant access without normal methods of access authentication. 
A trap is a software interrupt, usually the result of an error condition.

What are local and global page replacements?

Local replacement means that an incoming page is brought in only to the relevant process address space. Global replacement policy allows any page frame from any process to be replaced. The latter is applicable to variable partitions model only.

Define latency, transfer and seek time with respect to disk I/O.


Seek time is the time required to move the disk arm to the required track. Rotational delay or latency is the time it takes for the beginning of the required sector to reach the head. Sum of seek time (if any) and latency is the access time. Time taken to actually transfer a span of data is transfer time.

In the context of memory management, what are placement and replacement algorithms?


Placement algorithms determine where in available real-memory to load a program. Common methods are first-fit, next-fit, best-fit. Replacement algorithms are used when memory is full, and one process (or part of a process) needs to be swapped out to accommodate a new program. The replacement algorithm determines which are the partitions to be swapped out.

How are the wait/signal operations for monitor different from those for semaphores?


If a process in a monitor signal and no task is waiting on the condition variable, the signal is lost. So this allows easier program design. Whereas in semaphores, every operation affects the value of the semaphore, so the wait and signal operations should be perfectly balanced in the program.

What are demand-paging and pre-paging?


With demand paging, a page is brought into memory only when a location on that page is actually referenced during execution. With pre-paging, pages other than the one demanded by a page fault are brought in. The selection of such pages is done based on common access patterns, especially for secondary memory devices.

In loading programs into memory, what is the difference between load-time dynamic linking and run-time dynamic linking?

For load-time dynamic linking: Load module to be loaded is read into memory. Any reference to a target external module causes that module to be loaded and the references are updated to a relative address from the start base address of the application module.


With run-time dynamic loading: Some of the linking is postponed until actual reference during execution. Then the correct module is loaded and linked.

What are the four layers that Windows NT have in order to achieve independence?
Hardware abstraction layer
Kernel
Subsystems
System Services.

What is an idle thread?


The special thread a dispatcher will execute when no ready thread is found.

What is SMP?


To achieve maximum efficiency and reliability a mode of operation known as symmetric multiprocessing is used. In essence, with SMP any process or threads can be assigned to any processor.

What is process spawning?


When the OS at the explicit request of another process creates a process, this action is called process spawning.



What are the typical elements of a process image?
User data: Modifiable part of user space. May include program data, user stack area, and programs that may be modified.
User program: The instructions to be executed.
System Stack: Each process has one or more LIFO stacks associated with it. Used to store parameters and calling addresses for procedure and system calls.
Process control Block (PCB): Info needed by the OS to control processes.

Explain the concept of Reentrancy?

It is a useful, memory-saving technique for multiprogrammed timesharing systems. A Reentrant Procedure is one in which multiple users can share a single copy of a program during the same period. Reentrancy has 2 key aspects: The program code cannot modify itself, and the local data for each user process must be stored separately. Thus, the permanent part is the code, and the temporary part is the pointer back to the calling program and local variables used by that program. Each execution instance is called activation. It executes the code in the permanent part, but has its own copy of local variables/parameters. The temporary part associated with each activation is the activation record. Generally, the activation record is kept on the stack.
Note: A reentrant procedure can be interrupted and called by an interrupting program, and still execute correctly on returning to the procedure.

What are the key object oriented concepts used by Windows NT?

Encapsulation, Object class and instance.

Is Windows NT a full blown object oriented operating system? Give reasons.


No Windows NT is not so, because its not implemented in object oriented language and the data structures reside within one executive component and are not represented as objects and it does not support object oriented capabilities.

What are rings in Windows NT?


Windows NT uses protection mechanism called rings provides by the process to implement separation between the user mode and kernel mode.

What is mutant?

In Windows NT a mutant provides kernel mode or user mode mutual exclusion with the notion of ownership.

What are the sub-components of I/O manager in Windows NT?

Network redirector/ Server
Cache manager.
File systems
Network driver
Device driver

What are DDks? Name an operating system that includes this feature.

DDks are device driver kits, which are equivalent to SDKs for writing device drivers. Windows NT includes DDks.

What level of security does Windows NT meets?


C2 level security.

What are the reasons for process suspension?

swapping
interactive user request
timing
parent process request


Read full article from Operating Systems - Interview Questions and Answers

No comments:

Post a Comment

Labels

Review (554) System Design (293) System Design - Review (189) Java (178) Coding (75) Interview-System Design (65) Interview (60) Book Notes (59) Coding - Review (59) to-do (45) Knowledge (39) Linux (39) Interview-Java (35) Knowledge - Review (32) Database (30) Design Patterns (29) Product Architecture (28) Big Data (27) Soft Skills (27) Miscs (25) MultiThread (25) Concurrency (24) Cracking Code Interview (24) Career (22) Interview - Review (21) Java - Code (21) Operating System (21) Distributed (20) Interview Q&A (20) OOD Design (20) System Design - Practice (19) Security (17) Algorithm (15) How to Ace Interview (15) Brain Teaser (14) Google (13) Linux - Shell (13) Spark (13) Spring (13) Code Quality (12) How to (12) Interview-Database (12) Interview-Operating System (12) Redis (12) Tools (12) Architecture Principles (11) Company - LinkedIn (11) Testing (11) Resource (10) Solr (10) Amazon (9) Cache (9) Search (9) Web Dev (9) Architecture Model (8) Better Programmer (8) Company - Uber (8) Interview - MultiThread (8) Java67 (8) Math (8) OO Design principles (8) SOLID (8) Scalability (8) Cassandra (7) Git (7) Interview Corner (7) JVM (7) Java Basics (7) Machine Learning (7) NoSQL (7) C++ (6) Design (6) File System (6) Highscalability (6) How to Better (6) Kafka (6) Network (6) Restful (6) Trouble Shooting (6) CareerCup (5) Code Review (5) Company - Facebook (5) Hash (5) How to Interview (5) JDK Source Code (5) JavaScript (5) Leetcode (5) Must Known (5) Be Architect (4) Big Fata (4) C (4) Company Product Architecture (4) Data structures (4) Design Principles (4) Facebook (4) GeeksforGeeks (4) Generics (4) Google Interview (4) Hardware (4) JDK8 (4) Optimization (4) Product + Framework (4) Shopping System (4) Source Code (4) Web Service (4) node.js (4) Back-of-Envelope (3) Company - Pinterest (3) Company - Twiiter (3) Company - Twitter (3) Consistent Hash (3) GOF (3) Game Design (3) GeoHash (3) Growth (3) Guava (3) Interview-Big Data (3) Interview-Linux (3) Interview-Network (3) Java EE Patterns (3) Javarevisited (3) Map Reduce (3) Math - Probabilities (3) Performance (3) Puzzles (3) Python (3) Resource-System Desgin (3) Scala (3) UML (3) geeksquiz (3) AI (2) API Design (2) AngularJS (2) Behavior Question (2) Bugs (2) Coding Interview (2) Company - Netflix (2) Crawler (2) Cross Data Center (2) Data Structure Design (2) Database-Shard (2) Debugging (2) Docker (2) Elasticsearch (2) Garbage Collection (2) Go (2) Hadoop (2) Html (2) Interview - Soft Skills (2) Interview-Miscs (2) Interview-Web (2) JDK (2) Logging (2) POI (2) Papers (2) Programming (2) Project Practice (2) Random (2) Software Desgin (2) System Design - Feed (2) Thread Synchronization (2) Video (2) ZooKeeper (2) reddit (2) Ads (1) Advanced data structures (1) Algorithm - Review (1) Android (1) Approximate Algorithms (1) Base X (1) Bash (1) Books (1) C# (1) CSS (1) Chrome (1) Client-Side (1) Cloud (1) CodingHorror (1) Company - Yelp (1) Counter (1) DSL (1) Dead Lock (1) Difficult Puzzles (1) Distributed ALgorithm (1) Eclipse (1) Facebook Interview (1) Function Design (1) Functional (1) GoLang (1) How to Solve Problems (1) ID Generation (1) IO (1) Important (1) Internals (1) Interview - Dropbox (1) Interview - Project Experience (1) Interview Tips (1) Interview-Brain Teaser (1) Interview-How (1) Interview-Mics (1) Interview-Process (1) Jeff Dean (1) Joda (1) LeetCode - Review (1) Library (1) LinkedIn (1) LintCode (1) Mac (1) Micro-Services (1) Mini System (1) MySQL (1) Nigix (1) NonBlock (1) Process (1) Productivity (1) Program Output (1) Programcreek (1) Quora (1) RPC (1) Raft (1) RateLimiter (1) Reactive (1) Reading (1) Reading Code (1) Refactoring (1) Resource-Java (1) Resource-System Design (1) Resume (1) SQL (1) Sampling (1) Shuffle (1) Slide Window (1) Spotify (1) Stability (1) Storm (1) Summary (1) System Design - TODO (1) Tic Tac Toe (1) Time Management (1) Web Tools (1) algolist (1) corejavainterviewquestions (1) martin fowler (1) mitbbs (1)

Popular Posts